The purpose of the study is to offer an integrated and comprehensive report on the actual status of Integrated Coastal Zone Management process in the target countries: Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Turkey and Ukraine
Questions this practice may help answer
- What kind of data is necessary for Integrated Coastal Zone Management?
- What are the main steps for Integrated Coastal Zone Management?
- What are the instruments and the measures for implementing ICZM?
- What are the links between Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Maritime Spatial Planning?
The Study was carried out within the “Improvement of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Black Sea Region” project, and was supported by the Joint Operational Programme “Black Sea Basin 2007-2013”. It was carried out by the National Institute for Marine Research and Development “Grigore Antipa” (Romania) with the aim to provide an updated analysis of the results and progress of ICZM within 5 states from Black Sea region: Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Turkey and Ukraine.
The Black Sea states showed considerable progress in coastal planning and management leading to more sustainable use of the coastal zone. Extensive construction, erosion, deforestation and destruction of coastal habitats are registered along the coasts of the Black Sea in certain areas. The Black Sea ICZM Strategy was drafted; however, its adoption needs to be accelerated. ICZM spatial planning methodology was developed by the ICZM Activity Centre (Russian Federation), and further tested in Ukraine and Turkey, proving its usefulness and it will be wider promoted in the Black Sea coastal states and elsewhere. Also, new ICZM pilot projects should be initiated, as they offer unique opportunities for enhancing ICZM expertise using and improving the available Black Sea spatial planning methodology and ICZM strategy. Information exchange on best available practices should be more actively pursued in the region. The region should also agree on and use regularly a coherent system of indicators for an integral assessment of the Black Sea coastal zones state and implementation of ICZM (Antonidze, 2010).
Aspects / Objectives
The Study’s overall objective was to update the analysis of the results and progress of ICZM in the studied countries. To that end, five specific objectives were set out:
- Assessing the Black Sea marine and coastal ecosystem vulnerability and developing endeavours of implementing European Integrated Coastal Zone Management/ICZM practices;
- Collecting/validating data, identifying solutions and elaborating action plans;
- Developing an ICZM step-by-step approach;
- Identifying types of instruments and measures to implement ICZM;
- Assessing the potential polluters in the Black Sea and qualitative monitoring status on the Romanian Black Sea Sector.
The Methodology used in elaborating the Study is based on:
- Reporting guidance Implementation of ICZM Recommendation 2006-2010, DGENV.D.2/15.2.2010;
- DPSIR Methodology (Driving forces - Pressure - State - Impact - Response) to facilitate analysing the connections between socio-economic trends, ecological phenomena and institutional framework;
- Harmonization of methods and solutions considered in elaborating the Study with the experience of more proficient countries in the ICZM area of expertise (the Netherlands);
Whereas Romania is the only Black Sea basin country with a specific ICZM legislation, its success in implementing ICZM will be a driving force for the other riparian countries.
Further essential sources of information were:
- Annual report of the Black Sea Commission Advisory Group on Development of Common Methodology for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM AG), BSC, 2010, 2013, Publications of the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (BSC), Istanbul, Turkey.
- EU co-funded research projects (concluded and on-going) and territorial cooperation projects
(especially the projects funded under the Joint Operational Programme “Black Sea Basin 2007-2013”).
For the rest of the project partner countries (Ukraine, Moldova, Bulgaria and Turkey) the reports drafted by the ICZM experts appointed by the project partners were used. Additional data were used from the Stock-Taking on ICZM in the Black Sea Region; relevant national documents, national projects, regional projects, national legislations, national documents elaborated under the aegis of the World Bank etc.
More heterogeneity was found in countries which adopted a framework equivalent to an ICZM strategy; with few exceptions a holistic approach is already considered in planning and management tools in place in different countries, as well as strategies considering long term perspectives were developed in the last period.
Main Outputs / Results
The main output of the study is a Report titled “Study on integrated coastal zone management”. Its structure is organised into 6 chapters. The first one focuses on the concepts and the principles of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management. The second chapter analyses the current legal and institutional framework for international and cross-border cooperation in the Black Sea Basin as a prerequisite for the introduction on the integrated approach to ICZM. The third part reviews the current state of the coastal zone, whereas the fourth reviews the legal, political and institutional frameworks for ICZM in the target countries. Analysis of problems and opportunities for introducing ICZM in the Black Sea Region is given in the fifth chapter, whereas the things that have to be done to that purpose – in the last part of the Report.
The ICZM step by step approach is annexed to Study (Annex I). The document outlines in 10 steps a point of view that shows how ICZM can be functional for the Black Sea Area. The guide contains measures with the desired results as well as the proper tasks for each step.
Annex 2 contains the types of measures that should be taken, and the instruments to be used.
The last annex (Annex 3) presents an assessment study of the potential polluters in the Black Sea and a qualitative monitoring status on the Romanian Black Sea Sector.
The practice is fully applicable in other contexts, as it provides a framework and methodology for similar studies, as well as for introduction of Integrated Coastal Zone Management in other maritime areas. The study is organised into several distinct but closely linked parts, with clear focus on the relevant ICZM aspects, which makes it easily transferable to other contexts and areas.
Dr. Mariana GOLUMBEANU
National Institute for Marine Research and Development "Grigore Antipa"
Head of Technological Transfer and Dissemination Department
Dr.ing. Simion NICOLAEV
National Institute for Marine Research and Development "Grigore Antipa"
Project “Improvement of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Black Sea Region – ICZM”, funded by the Joint Operational Programme Black Sea Basin 2007-2013
Costs / Funding Source
Funding Source: Joint Operational Programme Black Sea Basin 2007-2013
(Priority 2 – Sharing resources and competencies for environmental protection and conservation, Measure 2.1 – Strengthening the joint knowledge and information base needed to address common challenges in the environmental protection of river and maritime systems)